Tag Archives: Powershell

SQL, dbatools and Webroot

I have been busy working on a SQL server migration, and have come across a couple of issues.

Firstly, attempting to install or upgrade an SQL instance with Webroot on the machine generates an unauthorized action on the machine. Reviewing the error logs provides the following error

Exception type: Microsoft.SqlServer.Configuration.Sco.ScoException
Message: 
Attempted to perform an unauthorized operation.
HResult : 0x84bb0001
FacilityCode : 1211 (4bb)
ErrorCode : 1 (0001)
Data: 
WatsonData = [email protected]{145996FC-8E6B-47AB-BEA5-A84F12B72AF5}

Navigating to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall registry shows the value {14599…..} is Webroot. Set server into unmanaged mode and then removing Webroot then enabled me to install SQL service packs.

I’ve also run into the same issue on new installs which leads me to the second issue.

I’m using dbatools to install with notes taken from the newly printed dbatools in a month of lunches. A book I purchased pre-pandemic and promptly forgot about but I finally got my hands on the book.

dbatools is a fantastic resource for SQL admins who want to automate everything and a common task is installing SQL.

Unfortunately there’s a typo in Listing 13.6 and 13.7 The parameter SQLUSERDBDATADIR that is coded into the sql config.ini file should actually be SQLUSERDBDIR

It took me a while to figure that one out. I then went to check out the books online only to find someone had found and reported the same error – yesterday!

The moral of the story is to check the books online first.

Also, whilst looking at my Manning books – I have a Powershell problem (or maybe with all these books I don’t!

Listing of Powershell books from Manning Publications

Fixed: The trust relationship between this workstation and the primary domain failed

Login dialog box showing The trust relatiionship between this workstation and the primary domain failed.

Yes, this old chestnut! Had this issue today on a server, but for some reason the standard netdom resetpwd command would not work.

Running the command netdom resetpwd /s:servername /ud:domain\user /pd:* would give me the error message “The machine account password for the local machine could not be reset”

Powershell to the rescue and the equivalent commands running on the affected machine fixed the issue

$c=get-credential

test-computersecurechannel -repair -credential $c

shutdown /f /r /t 3

Unfortunately I’ve had to this multiple times in the past and it’s about time I blogged the solution for my own reference in the future

Powershell oneliner to check network connections used on current machine based on Mike Robin’s blog post

Mike Robins had a nice tip yesterday about using powershell to see what your system is talking to and I thought I would tweak it slightly to potentially make it even more useful.

When I ran the command on my machine it took a while to run and I also thought it would be nice to tweak it so that the machine does a reverse dns lookup to retrieve the host names that the system is talking to. This might provide an indication of whether the connection is good or not.

I saved the output of the command to a variable so if I need to tweak the display output I can do so easily without running the script again.

$a=Get-NetTCPConnection -State Established | `
Select-Object -Property LocalPort, RemoteAddress, RemotePort, State,`
@{name='Process';expression={(Get-Process -Id $_.OwningProcess).Name}}, `
@{name='fqdn';expression={([System.Net.Dns]::GetHostByAddress($_.Remoteaddress).Hostname)}},`
 CreationTime
$a

This is a very quick and dirty hack and takes ages to run on my computer. It probably doesn’t help that I have a ton of chrome tabs open which will require a lot of dns lookups and several of them are the same host but this method will lookup them all up individually. IP  and dns lookup on active network connections

 

Yes, I split this ‘one-liner’ into multiple lines to make it easier to read on the screen but if you have to do that, then it’s not really a one-liner and even more so if you are unlikely to remember it.

Office365 Exchange Control Panel now has command logging for admins.

Help Button, Show command logging.One of my annoyances with Office365 administration tasks was that I could make changes to the interface but had no idea what commands were being run behind the scenes. This made creating scripts a frustrating trial and error attempt at finding the correct verbs to run.
However, this morning I stumbled under the Help/Show Command Logging option in the admin panel. This is similar to the Show command output that was available in the Exchange 2010 admin console that I used extensively in the good old on-premise days.

I have no idea how long this has been here but it really made my day.

Now if only the rest of the Office365 admin panels had the same functionality.

Retrieve Mailbox Migration errors for Office365

When you have a lot of mailboxes to migrate, Microsoft’s provided method of viewing the errors involves a tedious amount of clicking by logging into the portal, selecting Exchange, Migration, View details, scroll down to find a failure, select the user, click view details.

Viewing Migration status in Office365

 

Rather than use the tedious method of going into the details, selecting a user and then viewing details, run the following powershell script (once connected using the previous office365 connection script)

get-migrationuser -status failed  | get-migrationuserstatistics | select identity,emailaddress,recipienttype, error,bytestransferred |export-csv c:\temp\migrationstatus.csv

I also have a simple loop that gets me the status once an hour. Obviously change the email address’s appropriately.

while (1)
{
$a=(get-migrationuser | out-string)
send-mailmessage -to [email protected] -subject “Company Migration Stats” -from [email protected] -smtpserver my.mailserver.com  -body $a
start-sleep -seconds 3600
}

Pimp your Powershell Prompt

I use powershell a lot at work – I’m not a guru by any means and I often find it hard to remember the commands I have run in a session, either for future use or for documenting in my time sheet (which also acts as a point of reference for future helpdesk tickets).

When I started going through the Powershell in a month of lunches book (which I highly recommend or the Powershell v3 book) I decided to use the start-transcript commandlet to record all my powershell activities.  This worked very well until I would scroll through several screens worth and then forget what file I had saved my transcript too.  There was also the possibility of forgetting to transcript everything.

By using the powershell profile file I was able to enter the commands to automatically set the transcript to the current date. I was then able to modify the title of the powershell prompt to display the filename so I could always see where the file was saved with the added bonus of a variable being used if I ever needed to open the transcript

My next step was to include the time in the powershell prompt – this enables me to go back through the transcript and see how long it took to run the commands for my timesheet entries.  Remembering back to the good old dos days, I remembered the prompt command. A quick bit of experimenting with the Date command I had the current time displayed at the beginning on the Powershell prompt. Note this is displayed after the previous command is run, so technically it’s not the exact current time, but the time that the prompt was displayed on the screen.

The final profile script can be copy/pasted into notepad by typing in

notepad $profile

is as follows:-

cd \andy\powershellinamonthoflunches

$log="c:\temp\powershelllogs-" + $env.username + (get-date -uformat "%y%m%d-%H%M") + ".txt"
start-transcript $log
$host.ui.rawui.WindowTitle = $log

function prompt
{
write-host ((Date -uformat %T).ToString() + "PS " +$(get-location) + ">") -nonewline
return " "
}

This ends up with a powershell prompt that looks like the following. Hope this brief posting inspires you to change your powershell prompt to be even more useful for you.

 

Powershell prompt with the filename in the title and current time in the prompt

 

Fixed – Office365 journalling does not work for one user

I’ve been working on a case with Microsoft’s Office365 support for several weeks trying to find out why email sent *to* a particular user was not being journalled. All the other mail seemed to be journalled to the external recipient, email from the user was working, just not email to that user.

The experience was quite frustrating as Microsoft’s support were terrible at calling back and could not grasp the concept of email tracking. Their solution after making a change was to wait a day to see if it was fixed although it was quite apparent that the Microsoft servers were not even trying to send the email (by looking at the Trace Logs you can see what email was being sent and received).

After checking the connectors were setup, mail properly scoped, the user had no rules on their mailbox, Microsoft’s solution was to delete the mailbox and reset it up again.  Not so easy when the mailbox/user is federated with Active Directory and the user happens to be the owner of the company. That was not a conversation I was going to have with them!

The only thing that was different with this user was that in troubleshooting this issue we had set the user up to receive the journalling non delivery reports. I figured that if the emails were not being delivered, maybe sending him the errors would help. However no reports were being received either.  However, according to KB 2829319 this behaviour can be seen. Although I had removed the journal receipient in the web gui, the emails were still not being journalled until I added another external email address to the configuration using the powershell command set-transportconfig -JournalingReportNdrTo [email protected]

At this point, all the email started to be journalled.

Note that we only added the recipient into the mix when I was trying to work on the initial problem so it looks like this wasn’t the only fix.

The other thing we did was change the outboundconnector to be onpremises. Changing the setting in the GUI we then ran Set-OutboundConnector archivemymailconnector -routeAllmessagesviaonpremises $true.

 

These two combinations seemed to fix the issue.

One thing I also learnt was that it is really useful to send multiple emails between changes and keep the subject line starting the same. Use the date/time at the end of the email. That way you can sort the email logs by Subject and just pick out the ones you were working on. By having the subject start with zzz followed by Round X (ie zzz Round 1 – change connector – 1345pm and zzz Round 1 – change connector 1346pm ) then the results are likely to appear at the end of your mail logs if you sort by subject.  Sorting by Date was not always a good idea as mail flow could occur between mail coming into the server and mail leaving the server.

 

Fixed: Installing Powershell 3 fails on Windows7 with “The update is not applicable to your computer”

Powershell 3 was released this week and is now available to download for Windows 7 (sp1) platforms. I tried to install it on my home machine this weekend and got
“The update is not applicable to your computer”. It turns out that this is actually because .net framework 4 (or higher) has not been installed.
The full .net 4 framework package is available at http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=17718 or you could install the newer 4.5 framework at http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=30653. Make sure that you close the false powershell installation before attempting the .net installation or the .net will try to install for about 5 minutes on your computer and then complain that another install is already in use and does not give you the option to retry. You can only abort and then run the whole installation again. All in all a pretty bad user experience for trying to install the software.

Thanks to the Troubleshooting guide for the beta version of Powershell 3 that tipped me off for the pre-reqs which are not mentioned on the original download page for Powershell 3 and unfortunately there is no place on that web page to provide feedback.

Retrieve user friendly list of users who have full access to a particular mailbox in Office365

We had a request to provide a list of users who have Full access to a mailbox in Office 365. The get-mailboxpermission is pretty straightforward, but the results show the Windows username as opposed to the descriptive name for the user. The following script should provide the information needed. Note that the first 3 lines connect to Microsoft Online (you will be prompted for username and password) – the last two are the magic ones. Replace “User name” with the users first and last name ie “Andy Helsby” in my case

$LiveCred = Get-Credential
$Session = New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -ConnectionUri https://ps.outlook.com/powershell/ -Credential $LiveCred -Authentication Basic -AllowRedirection
Import-PSSession $Session

$userlist = Get-Mailbox "user name" | Get-MailboxPermission | Where-Object { ($_.AccessRights -eq "Fullaccess") -and ($_.IsInherited -eq $false) -and -not ($_.User -like "*nt authorityself*") }
$userlist | foreach {get-mailbox $_.user}

If I can work it out, I’ll update the script later to provide a report for all mailboxes – in the meantime this works for 1 mailbox at a time.

Funnily enough, this report didn’t actually help the reason we were asked for the report – that was because the user had issues connecting to someone else’s mailbox. It turns out that the Microsoft Online password had been changed and outlook was using the cached credentials. By removing the stored passwords in the control panel, Outlook prompted for the password and everything started working.